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.Skinners Normal Language Development Theories

Date of publication: 2017-09-04 17:39

Nurture is the effect that the people in your life have on you, and the environment you are in. It is things that have influenced you whilst growing up, . the media or values taught by your parents.

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Throughout the placement I have enjoyed the experience and I have gained experience with babies and have found that they are not as fragile as I first thought and that I do understand what their noises mean and I can distinguish between a "hungry cry" and "I'm sad I need attention", cry. I have also learned that it is healthy for babies not to be seen to straight away when they first start to cry, that they can indeed sort themselves out and ignoring and leaving the children to cry helps them to become more independent.

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So therefore Child A and B are already aware to what is being said around them and have some understanding of language, they would definitely sense tone of voice and both children can recognise their mothers voice as a comfort noise.

Combo with Combo with Psychosocial Development- Erik

Learning is when there is a change in behaviour or knowledge which has developed from previous experiences or training. The learning process could be innate, meaning that we are born with the knowledge, or it has been obtained through daily life. Hence, any knowledge or behaviour that we are now in hold of that we were not born with, was somehow "learned". This has been studied by psychologists in many ways, Pavlov with his associative learning he examined the salivation of dogs in response to meat powder to Skinner with his reinforcement theory, that a learner will only repeat the desired behaviour if the behaviour is followed by positive reinforcement rats press a lever in the quest of gaining some kind of reward.

Child A and Child B have been making eye contact with their peers giving them confidence, physical, psychological and emotional comfort. The children observed enjoy the company of others and like to copy facial expressions and sounds that those around them make.

Physical development: The different areas of development that the observations will be focused on are- physical development, this is divided into gross motor development, and how children grow and acquire physical skills, from gaining head control to full agility. Fine motor development linked with vision and hand-eye coordination.

Lev Vygotsky is also another important child development theorist he emphasised the "importance of families, communities and other children's influences on children". Vygotsky believed that language and thinking were key talking about everyday experiences would help children learn more about communication. The zone of proximal development is what a child can do alone and what they can do with someone more skilled or experienced. The social context for learning is when child learn through interaction with others. - How Children Learn, Linda Pound 7555.

Doctors, midwives, or nurses add these five factors together to calculate the Apgar score. Scores obtainable are between 65 and 5, with 65 being the highest possible score. (/parent/newborn/first_days/). Children that have a score under 6 rarely survive.

When talking to the baby, they'll try and converse back, and as they grow older they learn words and their meanings and are able to create sentences. This all comes from some form of social interaction. The 'nature' side of things is important in this matter too as once a child has learnt a word, it needs to be stored and recalled again when needed to. Therefore, both nature and nurture work together in an effort to create language development.

Cognition is basically the mental activities that are associated with thinking, knowing and remembering any ideas and thoughts that a person has, or memories that are stored are all different types of cognitive processes. Reading and learning is also a type of cognition.

The mother believes in a constant routine and that her children behave the way they are because she does not smother them and entertain them when they cry, she encourages them to play by themselves as to establish independence from an early age. She says "let the babies cry for a bit and they will sort themselves out". But obviously if the child has hurt themselves or really needs attention she will give them love and care.

Development can either be qualitative or quantitative. It can be qualitative in the sense that you can't measure the change, but the change is still noticeable. You can develop quantitatively by an increase in height or weight etc. "Patterns of change over time which begin at conception and continue throughout the life span" (Keenan, 7556).

Cognitive and Language development: Language development, which is from the first cry, through the growth of verbal communication skills, to true speech and understanding. Also Intellectual/cognitive development, the development of children's ability to think and learn through interacting with their senses and experiences (Frankel, Hobart, 7559)

Both children seem to understand that when the toy is put behind mums back it's not there, but they still try and reach for it as they know that mum is hiding it. But when the toys are packed away they understand that it's gone.

From comparing the observations to the EYFS (Early Years Foundation Stage) Child A and Child B are developing an understanding of themselves and what they are capable of doing. This is recognisable during observing them in all types of situation such as carpet time, bath time and feeding.