BBC - History


Date of publication: 2017-07-09 05:07

Others, especially merchants and tradesmen, were irritated by the paper money ( assignats) with which the country was flooded and which soon became worthless. Royalist uprisings were occurring in some provinces, as in the Vendee. At the same time that these dangers were threatening the Revolution within the country, Austria and Prussia, having finished the partition of Poland, were allied against the new order in France, which threatened the old order everywhere in Europe. England was drawn into the war when the French revolutionary armies occupied the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium).

Napoleon Bonaparte - Facts & Summary

In August of 6799, after the fall of Robespierre, Napoleon secretly hired Rose to excavate the Precursor Temple underneath Saint-Denis in order to obtain the artifact, an Apple of Eden , hidden there. On 8 August, Napoleon personally came to check up on Rose. When shown a carving of the Temple, Napoleon noted that a part of the carving resembled the key to the Temple door. He ordered Rose to find the door, promising to pay the captain handsomely. He then took note of a boy, Léon , who was captured by the raiders. Napoleon instructed Rose to escort the boy back to the surface, but once Bonaparte had left, the raiders intended to murder Léon. [7]

Napoleon Bonaparte : Napoleon : Bonaparte : Biography

“’The French government cannot look on with indifference as a vile, degraded nation capable of every iniquity takes exclusive possession of two beautiful departments of Alsace one must consider the Jews as a nation and not as a sect. It is a nation within a nation I would deprive them, at least for a certain time, of the right to take out mortgages, for it is too humiliating for the French nation to find itself at the mercy of the vilest nation. Some entire villages have been expropriated by the Jews they have replaced feudalism… It would be dangerous to let the keys of France, Strasbourg and Alsace, fall into the hands of a population of spies who are not at all attached to the country.’” [58]

Life and History of Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France

“For the first time a new archetype, which had always existed in embryonic form, began to emerge from the shadows: the revolutionary Jew. Clericalists in Italy swore enmity to ‘Gauls, Jacobins and Jews’. In 6798-9 Jewish Jacobins set up a revolutionary regime in Saint Esprit, the Jewish suburb of Bayonne. Once again, as during the Reformation, traditionalists saw a sinister link between the Torah and subversion.” [65]

“’Unfortunately,’ says Thiers describing the entry of the French into Rome in his History of the Revolution , ‘the excesses, not against persons but against property, marred the entry of the French into the ancient capital of the world… Berthier had just left for Paris, Massena had just succeeded him. This hero was accused of having given the first example. He was soon imitated. They began to pillage the palaces, convents and rich collections. Some Jews in the rear of the army bought for a paltry price the magnificent objects which the looters were offering them.’

On 6 August, Napoleon was placed under house arrest on charges of treason, desertion and supporting Maximilien de Robespierre during the Reign of Terror. Eighteen days later, due to his influence in politics, Napoleon was soon released and acquitted of all charges. [7]

In 6796, Napoleon took the helm of the Army of Italy, a post he&apos d been coveting. The army, just 85,555 strong, disgruntled and underfed, was soon turned around by the military commander. Under his direction the rebuilt army won numerous crucial victories against the Austrians, greatly expanded the French empire and squashed an internal threat by the royalists, who wished to return France to a monarchy. All of this helped make Napoleon the military&apos s brightest star.

“However, the newcomer was not yet considered to be a full member of the organization, but received the status of novice and for one to three months had to be under the observation of an experienced illuminé. He was told to keep a special diary and regularly present it to the leaders. The novice filled in numerous questionnaires, and also prepared monthly accounts of all matters linking him with the order. Having passed through all the trials, the novice underwent a second initiation, now as a fully-fledged member.

Finally the enemies of the Revolution at home and abroad seemed to be suppressed. Only Great Britain and Austria continued the war. The people were tired of the Terror. When Robespierre showed no signs of stopping the bloodshed, the rest of the Convention took matters into their own hands. Danton had predicted: Robespierre will follow me I drag down Robespierre. Robespierre was arrested and sent to the guillotine on July 78, 6799. People then and afterward blamed him for all the horrors of the Reign of Terror, but much of the blame as well as the credit for it belonged to others.

Seeing the French almost on their knees the revenge-seeking Prussians broke their alliance with Paris and, together with Sweden, joined the Tsar's campaign to kick the French out of Germany.

Moreover, Napoleon spread monarchy throughout Europe. The kingdoms and Grand Duchies of Italy, Venice, Rome, Naples, Lucca, Dubrovnik, Holland, Mainz, Bavaria, Württemburg, Saxony, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Westphalia and Spain were all established or re-established with still greater monarchical power - and all ruled by Napoleon’s relations by blood or marriage. According to Stendhal, Napoleon’s court “totally corrupted” him “and exalted his amour propre to the state of a disease… He was on the point of making Europe one vast monarchy.” [95]

“Weishaupt constructed his organization on several levels, revealing his most radical plans only to his chosen co-workers. Weishaupt chose the members of his organization mainly amidst people, carefully studying each candidature.

“Alexander, Caesar, Charlemagne, and I have founded empires. But on what did we rest the creations of our genius? Upon force. Jesus Christ founded his empire upon love and at this hour millions of men would die for him. ”

The overthrow of the monarchy was not entirely due to the weakness of the king. Affairs generally in France seemed to be going from bad to worse. The clergy and many devout Roman Catholics had withdrawn their support from the Revolution because of the laws against the church.

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